Generation of Entangled Light from a Nondegenerate Three-Level Laser Coupled to a Two-Mode Vacuum Reservoir
Keywords:atomic coherence, quadrature squeezing, entanglement, mean photon number
The quantum properties of a nondegenerate three-level cascade laser coupled to a two-mode vacuum reservoir are throughly analyzed with the use of the pertinent master equation and stochastic differential equations associated with the normal ordering. Particularly, the enhancement of squeezing and the amplification of photon entanglement of the two-mode cavity light are investigated. It is found that the two cavity modes are strongly entangled, and the degree of entanglement is directly related to the two-mode squeezing. Moreover, the squeezing and entanglement of the cavity radiation enhance with the rate of atomic injection.
S. Qamar, M. Al-Amri, M.S. Zubairy, Entanglement in a bright light source via Raman-driven coherence. Phys. Rev. A 79, 013831 (2009).
J. Anwar, M.S. Zubairy. Quantum-statistical properties of noise in a phase-sensitive linear amplifier. Phys. Rev. A 49, 481 (1994).
N.A. Ansari, J.G. Banacloche, M.S. Zubairy. Phase-sensitive amplifi cation in a three-level atomic system. Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179 (1990).
H. Xiong, M.O. Scully, M.S. Zubairy. Correlated spontaneous emission laser as an entanglement amplifier. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 023601 (2005).
C.A. Blockley, D.F. Walls. Intensity fl uctuations in a frequency down-conversion process with three-level atoms. Phys. Rev. 43, 5049 (1991).
N. Lu, F.X. Zhao, J. Bergou. Nonlinear theory of a two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission laser: A coherently pumped two-level-two-photon laser. Phys. Rev. A 39, 5189 (1989).
E. Alebachew. Enhanced squeezing and entanglement in a nondegenerate three-level cascade laser with injected squeezed light. Opt. Commun. 280, 133 (2007).
T. Abebe. The quantum analysis of non-degenerate three-level laser with spontaneous emission and noiseless vacuum reservoir. Ukr. J. Phys. 63, 969 (2018).
B. Teklu. Parametric oscillation with the cavity mode driven by coherent light and coupled to a squeezed vacuum reservoir. Opt. Commun. 261, 310 (2006).
T. Abebe. Enhancement of squeezing and entanglement in a non-degenerate three-level cascade laser with coherently driven cavity. Ukr. J. Phys. 63, 733 (2018).
T. Abebe. Coherently driven nondegenerate three-level laser with noiseless vacuum reservoir. Bulg. J. Phys. 45, 357 (2018).
T. Abebe, N. Gemechu. Two-level atom with squeezed light from optical parametric oscillators. Ukr. J. Phys. 63, 600 (2018).
Ch. Gashu, T. Abebe. Externally induced entanglement amplification in a coherently pumped emission of laser
with parametric amplifier and coupled to squeezed vacuum reservoir. Phys. Scr. 95, 075105 (2020).
T. Abebe, N. Gemechu, Ch. Gashu, K. Shogile, S. Hailemariam, Sh. Adisu. The quantum analysis of nonlinear optical parametric processes with thermal reservoirs. Int. J. Opt. 2020, 7198091 (2020).
T. Abebe, N. Gemechu, K. Shogile, S. Hailemariam, Ch. Gashu, Sh. Adisu. Entanglement quantification using
various inseparability criteria for correlated photons. Rom. J. Phys. 65, 107 (2020).
A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, R. Rosen. Can quantum mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete? Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935).
J.S. Bell. On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. Physics 1, 195 (1964).
J.M. Liu, B.S. Shi, X.F. Fan, J. Li, G.C. Guo. Wigner function description of continuous variable entanglement swapping. J. Opt. B: Quant. Semiclass. Opt. 3, 189 (2001).
S.L. Braunstein, H.J. Kimble. Dense coding for continuous variables. Phys. Rev. A 61. 042302 (2000).
S. Lloyd, S.L. Braunstein. Quantum computation over continuous variables. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1784 (1999).
S.L. Braunstein. Quantum error correction for communication with linear optics. Nature 394, 47 (1998).
T.C. Ralph. Continuous variable quantum cryptography. Phys.Rev. A 61, 010302 (2000).
T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Wein-furter, A. Zeilinger. Quantum cryptography with entangled photons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729 (2000).
C.H. Bennett, D.P. DiVincenzo. Quantum information and computation. Nature 404, 247 (2000).
S. Barzanjeh, S. Pirandola, C. Weedbrook. Continuous-variable dense coding by optomechanical cavities. Phys. Rev. A 88, 042331 (2013).
N. Ganguly, S. Adhikari, A.S. Majumdar, J. Chatterjee. Entanglement witness operator for quantum teleportation.
Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 270501 (2011).
C. Branciard, N. Brunner, H. Buhrman, R. Cleve, N. Gisin, S. Portmann, D. Rosset, M. Szegedy. Classical simulation
of entanglement swapping with bounded communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 100401 (2012).
T. Kitagawa, A. Aspect, M. Greiner, E. Demler. Phase-sensitive measurements of order parameters for ultracold atoms through two-particle interferometry. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 115302 (2011).
S. Koike, H. Takahashi, H. Yonezawa, N. Takei, S.L. Braunstein, T. Aoki, A. Furusawa. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060504 (2006).
R.T. Thew, W.J. Munro. Entanglement manipulation and concentration. Phys. Rev. A 63, 030302(R)(2001). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.63.030302
T. Kishore, P. Anirban, S. Biswajit, J. Perina. Higher-order nonclassicalities in a codirectional nonlinear optical coupler: Quantum entanglement, squeezing, and antibunching. Phys. Rev. A 90, 013808 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.90.013808
N. Javid, T. Kishore, P. Anirban, S. Banerjee. Probing nonclassicality in an optically driven cavity with two atomic ensembles. Phys. Rev. A 97, 063840 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.97.063840
L.M. Duan, G. Giedke, J.I. Cirac, P. Zoller. Inseparability criterion for continuous variable systems. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2722 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.2722
Y.H. Ma, Q.X. Mu, G.H. Yang, L. Zhou. Enhanced continuous-variable entanglement by a self-phase-locked type-II optical parameter oscillator with feedback loops. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 215502 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-4075/41/21/215502
G. Vidal, R.F. Wener. Computable measure of entanglement. Phys. Rev. A 65, 032314 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.65.032314
M. Fox. Quantum Optics: An Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2006).
Ch. Gashu, E. Mosisa, T. Abebe. Entanglement quantification of correlated photons generated by three-level laser with parametric amplifi er and coupled to a two-mode vacuum reservoir. Adv. Math. Phys. 2020, 9027480 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/9027480
G. Adesso, A. Serafi ni, F. Illuminati. Extremal entanglement and mixedness in continuous variable systems. Phys. Rev. A 70, 022318 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.70.022318
How to Cite
License to Publish the Paper
The corresponding author and the co-authors (hereon referred to as the Author(s)) of the paper being submitted to the Ukrainian Journal of Physics (hereon referred to as the Paper) from one side and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, represented by its Director (hereon referred to as the Publisher) from the other side have come to the following Agreement:
1. Subject of the Agreement.
The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the free non-exclusive right to use the Paper (of scientific, technical, or any other content) according to the terms and conditions defined by this Agreement.
2. The ways of using the Paper.
2.1. The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the right to use the Paper as follows.
2.1.1. To publish the Paper in the Ukrainian Journal of Physics (hereon referred to as the Journal) in original language and translated into English (the copy of the Paper approved by the Author(s) and the Publisher and accepted for publication is a constitutive part of this License Agreement).
2.1.2. To edit, adapt, and correct the Paper by approval of the Author(s).
2.1.3. To translate the Paper in the case when the Paper is written in a language different from that adopted in the Journal.
2.2. If the Author(s) has(ve) an intent to use the Paper in any other way, e.g., to publish the translated version of the Paper (except for the case defined by Section 2.1.3 of this Agreement), to post the full Paper or any its part on the web, to publish the Paper in any other editions, to include the Paper or any its part in other collections, anthologies, encyclopaedias, etc., the Author(s) should get a written permission from the Publisher.
3. License territory.
The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the right to use the Paper as regulated by sections 2.1.1–2.1.3 of this Agreement on the territory of Ukraine and to distribute the Paper as indispensable part of the Journal on the territory of Ukraine and other countries by means of subscription, sales, and free transfer to a third party.
4.1. This Agreement is valid starting from the date of signature and acts for the entire period of the existence of the Journal.
5.1. The Author(s) warrant(s) the Publisher that:
– he/she is the true author (co-author) of the Paper;
– copyright on the Paper was not transferred to any other party;
– the Paper has never been published before and will not be published in any other media before it is published by the Publisher (see also section 2.2);
– the Author(s) do(es) not violate any intellectual property right of other parties. If the Paper includes some materials of other parties, except for citations whose length is regulated by the scientific, informational, or critical character of the Paper, the use of such materials is in compliance with the regulations of the international law and the law of Ukraine.
6. Requisites and signatures of the Parties.
Publisher: Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Address: Ukraine, Kyiv, Metrolohichna Str. 14-b.
Author: Electronic signature on behalf and with endorsement of all co-authors.