Hall Study of Conductive Channels Formed in Germanium by Beams of High-Energy Light Ions
Keywords:Hall investigations, implantation, protons, a-particles, buried conductive channels
The implantation of the high-energy ions of H+ or He+ in germanium leads to the creation of buried conductive channels in its bulk with equal concentrations of acceptor centers. These centers are the structure defects of the crystal lattice which arise in the course of deceleration of high-energy particles. This method of introducing electrically active defects is similar to the doping of semiconductors by acceptor-type impurities. It has been established that the density of defects increases with the implantation dose till ≈5×10^15 cm−2. The further increase of the implantation dose does not affect the level of doping. In the range of applied doses (10^12–6×10^16) cm−2, the Hall mobility of holes in the formed conducting channels is practically independent of the implanted dose and is about (2-3)×10^4 cm2/Vs at 77 K. The doping of
the germanium by high-energy ions of H+ or He+ to obtain conducting regions with high hole mobility can be used in the microelectronics technology.
C. Riddet, J.R. Watling, K.-H. Chan, E.H.C. Parker, T.E. Whall, D.R. Leadley, A. Asenov. Hole mobility in germanium as a function of substrate and channel orientation, strain, doping, and temperature. IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59 (7), 1878 (2012).
T. Hosoi, Y. Suzuki, T. Shimura, H. Watanabe. Mobility characterization of Ge-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with striped Ge channels fabricated by lateral liquid-phase epitaxy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 173502 (2014).
S. Dissanayake, Y.Zhao, S. Sugahara, M. Takenaka,S. Takagi. Channel direction, effective field, and temperature dependences of hole mobility in (110)- oriented Geon-insulator p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-
effect transistors fabricated by Ge condensation technique. J. Appl. Phys. 109, 033709 (2011).
Yu. X. Kang, J. Zhang, R. Takenaka, S. Takagi. Characterization of ultrathin-body germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) structures and MOSFETs on flipped Smart-CutTM GeOI substrates. Solid-State Electron. B 115, 120 (2016).
Z. Zheng, X. Yu, M. Xie, R. Cheng, R. Zhang, Y. Zhao. Demonstration of ultra-thin buried oxide germanium-oninsulator MOSFETs by direct wafer bonding and polishing techniques. Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 023503 (2016).
B. Yurong, Xu. Jingping, L. Lu, F. Minmin. Simulation of electrical characteristics and structural optimization for
small-scaled dual-gate GeOI MOSFET with high-k gate dielectric. Chinese J. of Semiconductors 35 (9), 094002-1 (2014).
Yu.S. Zharkikh, S.V. Lysochenko, O.G. Kukharenko, O.V. Tretiak. Conductive channels formed in germanium by high-energy protons and alpha particles. Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Rev. B 441, 63 (2019).
F. Watt, M. B. Breese, A.A. Bettiol, J.A. van Kan. Proton beam writing. Mater. Today. 10 (6), 20 (2007).
V.V. Kozlovski, V.A. Kozlov, V.N. Lomasov. Modification of semiconductors by proton beams. Phys. Tech. Semiconductors 34 (2), 129 (2000).
Yu S. Zharkikh, S.V. Lysochenko, S.A. Lebed, O.G. Kukharenko, N.G. Tolmachev, O.V. Tretiak. Formation of
hidden conductive channels under bombardment of germanium by high energy protons. Techn. Phys. Lett. 39 (10), 851 (2013).
S. Lebed, M. Tolmachov, O. Kukharenko, O. Veselov. Recent status of the Kiev nuclear probe. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Section B 267 (12-13), 2013 (2009).
J.F. Ziegler, M.D. Ziegler, J.P. Biersack. SRIM: The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (Cadence Design Systems, 2008) [ISBN: 9780965420716, 096542071X].
V.A. Kozlov, V.V. Kozlovski. Doping of semiconductors using radiation defects produced by irradiation with pronons and alpha particules. Semiconductors 35 (7), 735 (2001).
P.F.P. Fichtner, J.R. Kaschny, A. Kling, H. Trinkaus, R.A. Yankov, A. Mucklich, W. Skorupa, F.C. Zawislak, L. Amaral, M.F. da Silva, J.C. Soares. Nucleation and growth of platelet bubble structures in He implanted silicon. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 136-138, 460 (1998).
J.M. Zahler, A. Fontcuberta, I. Morral, M.J. Griggs, H.A. Atwater, Y.J. Chabal. Role of hydrogen in hydrogen-
induced layer exfoliation of germanium. Phys. Rev. B 75, 035309 (2007).
I.P. Ferain, K.Y. Byun, C.A. Colinge, S. Brightup, M.S. Goorsky. Low temperature exfoliation process in hydrogen-implanted germanium layers. J. Appl. Phys. 107, 054315 (2010).
L.N. Abessonova, V.N. Dobrovolskii, Y.S. Zharkikh, O.S. Frolov, A.Y. Shik. On the interpretation of Hall measurements in inhomogeneous semiconductors. Phys. Tech. Semicond. 10 (2), 406 (1976).
F. Letertre, C. Deguet, C. Richtarch, B. Faure, J.M. Hartmann, F. Chieu, A. Beaumont, J. Dechamp, C. Morales, F. Allibert, P. Perreau, S. Pocas, S. Personnic, C. Lagahe- Blanchard, B. Ghyselen, Y.M. Le Vaillant, Jalaguier, N. Kernevez, C. Mazure. Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) structure realized by the Smart CutTM technology. Solid-State Electronics 809, B4.4 (2011).
Chr. Maleville, C. Mazure. Smart-cut technology: From 300 mm ultrathin SOI production to advanced engineered substrates. Solid-State Electron. 48 (6), 1055 (2004).
How to Cite
License to Publish the Paper
The corresponding author and the co-authors (hereon referred to as the Author(s)) of the paper being submitted to the Ukrainian Journal of Physics (hereon referred to as the Paper) from one side and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, represented by its Director (hereon referred to as the Publisher) from the other side have come to the following Agreement:
1. Subject of the Agreement.
The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the free non-exclusive right to use the Paper (of scientific, technical, or any other content) according to the terms and conditions defined by this Agreement.
2. The ways of using the Paper.
2.1. The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the right to use the Paper as follows.
2.1.1. To publish the Paper in the Ukrainian Journal of Physics (hereon referred to as the Journal) in original language and translated into English (the copy of the Paper approved by the Author(s) and the Publisher and accepted for publication is a constitutive part of this License Agreement).
2.1.2. To edit, adapt, and correct the Paper by approval of the Author(s).
2.1.3. To translate the Paper in the case when the Paper is written in a language different from that adopted in the Journal.
2.2. If the Author(s) has(ve) an intent to use the Paper in any other way, e.g., to publish the translated version of the Paper (except for the case defined by Section 2.1.3 of this Agreement), to post the full Paper or any its part on the web, to publish the Paper in any other editions, to include the Paper or any its part in other collections, anthologies, encyclopaedias, etc., the Author(s) should get a written permission from the Publisher.
3. License territory.
The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the right to use the Paper as regulated by sections 2.1.1–2.1.3 of this Agreement on the territory of Ukraine and to distribute the Paper as indispensable part of the Journal on the territory of Ukraine and other countries by means of subscription, sales, and free transfer to a third party.
4.1. This Agreement is valid starting from the date of signature and acts for the entire period of the existence of the Journal.
5.1. The Author(s) warrant(s) the Publisher that:
– he/she is the true author (co-author) of the Paper;
– copyright on the Paper was not transferred to any other party;
– the Paper has never been published before and will not be published in any other media before it is published by the Publisher (see also section 2.2);
– the Author(s) do(es) not violate any intellectual property right of other parties. If the Paper includes some materials of other parties, except for citations whose length is regulated by the scientific, informational, or critical character of the Paper, the use of such materials is in compliance with the regulations of the international law and the law of Ukraine.
6. Requisites and signatures of the Parties.
Publisher: Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Address: Ukraine, Kyiv, Metrolohichna Str. 14-b.
Author: Electronic signature on behalf and with endorsement of all co-authors.