Generalized Spin-Orbit Interaction and Its Manifestation in Two-Dimensional Electron Systems
In frame of Dirac quantum field theory that describes electrons and positrons as elementary excitations of the spinor field, the generalized operator of the spin-orbit interaction is obtained using non-relativistic approximation in the Hamilton operator of the spinor field taking into account the presence of an external potential. This operator is shown to contain a new term in addition to the known ones. By an example of a model potential in the form of a quantum well, it is demonstrated that the Schr¨odinger equation with the generalized spin-orbit interaction operator describes all spin states obtained directly from the Dirac equation. The dependence of the spin-orbit interaction on the spin states in quasi-two-dimensional systems of electrons localized in a quantum well is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the electric current in the quantum well layer induces the spin polarization of charge carriers near the boundary surfaces of the layer, with the polarization of the charge carriers being opposite at the different surfaces. This phenomenon appears due to the spin-orbit interaction and is known as the spin Hall effect, which was observed experimentally in heterostructures with the corresponding geometry.
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