On Efficient Thermionic Cathodes

  • O. Ye. Lushkin Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
Keywords: oxide cathode, dispenser cathode, alkaline-earth metal oxides, scandium oxide, thermionic emission, field emission

Abstract

A review of scientific works devoted to the most efficient modern thermionic cathodes – oxide cathodes and dispenser cathodes – is made. The main attention is focused on the analysis of emission mechanisms from those electron sources. In addition, the relation between the emission of dispenser cathodes and their physical and technical parameters is considered. The influence of fabrication methods on the cathode performance is discussed.

References

N.D. Morgulis, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 53, 501 (1954). https://doi.org/10.3367/UFNr.0053.195408c.0501

G. Hermann and S. Wagner, The Oxide Coated Cathode (Chapman and Hall, London, 1951).

E.S. Rittner, Philips Res. Rep. 8, 184 (1953).

G.A. Kudintseva, A.I. Melnikov, A.V. Morozov, and B.P. Nikonov, Thermionic Cathodes (Energiya, Moscow, 1966) (in Russian).

B.Ya. Moizhes, Physical Processes in Oxide Cathode (Nauka, Moscow, 1968) (in Russian).

P. Zalm, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 25, 211 (1968). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2539(08)60511-9

B.P. Nikonov, Oxide Cathode (Energiya, Moscow, 1979) (in Russian).

V.T. Cherepin and M.A. Vasil'ev, Methods and Devices for Surface Analysis of Materials. A Handbook (Naukova Dumka, Kyiv, 1982) (in Russian).

B.P. Nikonov and K.S. Beinar, Radiotekhn. Elektron. 15, 1272 (1970).

B.P. Nikonov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 35, 270 (1971).

K.S. Beinar and B.P. Nikonov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 35, 286 (1971).

B.P. Nikonov, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 15, 1481 (1973).

A.M. Sokolov and B.P. Nikonov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 40, 2472-2477 (1976).

G.Ya. Pikus, G.E. Chaika, and V.F. Shnyukov, Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 37, 1021 (1992).

V.F. Shnyukov, G.E. Chaika, and G.Ya. Pikus, Prog. Surf. Sci. 51, 175 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6816(96)00004-4

G.Ya. Pikus, S.P. Rakitin, V.I. Samiilenko, and V.F. Shnyukov, Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk Ser. Fiz. 62, 2051 (1998).

M. Saito, R. Suzuki, K. Fukuyama, K. Watanabe, K. Sano, and H. Nakanishi, IEEE Trans 37, 2605 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1109/16.64548

Y. Hayashida, N. Ozawa, and H. Sakutai, Appl. Surf. Sci. 146, 7 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(99)00046-X

A.V. Druzhinin and Yu.A. Kondrashenkov, Radiotekhn. Elektron. 18, 1531 (1973).

Yu.A. Kondrashenkov, Z.N. Galanina, and A.V. Druzhinin, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 6, 55 (1974).

L.A. Ashkinazi and V.A. Zlobin, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 4 Elektovak. Prib., Iss. 3, 10 (1982).

Yu.A. Kondrashenkov, Z.N. Galanina, and A.V. Druzhinin, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 7, 35 (1974).

A.Ya. Knyazev, in Abstracts of the 18-th All-Union Conference on Emission Electronics (Nauka, Moscow, 1981), p. 143.

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin, and A.I. Zuev, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 4, 42 (1981).

V.F. Shnyukov and A.E. Lushkin, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 1, 58 (1978).

V.F. Shnyukov and A.E. Lushkin, Vestnik Kiev. Univ. Fiz. 19, 61 (1973).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, and A.E. Lushkin, Vestnik Kiev. Univ. Fiz. 20, 88 (1979).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, and A.E. Lushkin, Vestnik Kiev. Univ. Fiz. 26, 62 (1985).

Yu.F. Klement'ev, A.Ya.Knyazev, and E.N. Lifantsev, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 10, 23 (1986).

A.N. Govyadinov and P.P. Mardilovich, Deposit manuscript N Ts4272 (Inst. of Electronics, Minsk, 1986) (in Russian)

D.I. Aleinikova and A.N. Govyadinov, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 6 Mater., Iss. 6, 22 (1988).

A.N. Govyadinov, I.L. Grigorishin, P.P. Mardilovich, and P.A. Ananich, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 6, 36 (1989).

I.L. Grigorishin, I.F. Kotova, and N.I. Mukhorov, IVESC'96 G16/101.

V.I. Kozlov, Obzory Elektorn. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 6, 1 (1980).

N.P. Brodnikovskii, L.A. Vermenko, O.I. Konovaljuk et al., Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 6 Mater., Iss. 4, 20 (1980).

P. Zalm and A.J.A. Van Stratum, Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 69 (1966).

A. van Oostrom and L. Augustus, Appl. Surf. Sci. 2, 173 (1979). https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5963(79)90033-3

S. Yamamoto, S. Tagushi, T. Aido et al., Appl. Surf. Sci. I7, 504 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5963(84)90010-2

G. Gartner, P. Geittner, D. Raasch, and D.U. Wiechert, Appl. Surf. Sci. 146, 22 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(99)00016-1

V.M. Skryleva, Obzory Elektorn. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 5, 1 (1976).

E.S. Rittner, W.C. Rutledge, and R.H. Ahlert, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1468 (1957). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1722678

A. Ahmed, Sci. Progr. Oxi. 57, 259 (1969).

A.V. Druzhinin, Radiotekhn. Elektron. 10, 498 (1965).

I. Brodie and R.O. Jenkins, in Effective Thermionic Cathodes, Vol. 2 (Gosenergoizdat, Moscow, 1960), p. 334 (in Russian).

G.A. Haas, C.R.K. Marrian, and A. Shih, Appl. Surf. Sci. 3/4, 430 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-4332(85)90191-6

A.W. Denier van der Gon, M.F.F.K. Jongen, H.H. Brongersma, U. van Slooten, and A. Manenschijn, Appl. Surf. Sci. 111, 64 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(96)00694-0

R. Cortenraad, A.W. Deiner van der Gon, H.H. Brongersma, G. Gartner, and A. Manenschijn, Appl. Surf. Sci. 191, 153 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(02)00175-7

A.P. Makarov, O.K. Kultashev, E.D. Kuranova et al., Radiotekhn. Elektron. 36, 2196 (1991).

V.F. Shnyukov and A.E. Lushkin, Radiotekh. 100, 267 (1996).

P. Zalm, in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, edited by L. Marton (Academic Press, New York, 1968), p. 221.

B.B. Shishkin, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 38, 2279 (1974).

Yu.V. Gurkov, A.V. Druzhinin, A.A. Isaev et al., Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 38, 2264 (1974).

C.E. Melony and N. Richardson, Appl. Surf Sci. 8, 2 (1981). https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5963(81)90003-9

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin et al., Radiotekhn. Elektron. 24, 1184 (1979).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin et al., Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 8, 25 (1980).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin et al., Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 6, 36 (1982).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin et al., Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 9, 40 (1984).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin et al., Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 4 Elektovak. Gazorazr. Prib., Iss. 1, 8 (1985).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin et al., Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 8, 30 (1986).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin et al., Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 52, 1500 (1988).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin et al., Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 4 Elektovak. Gazorazr. Prib., Iss. 4, 50 (1989).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin, and A.N. Bozhko, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 5, 24 (1991).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin et al., Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 5, 2357 (1991).

O.I. Get'man, A.E. Lushkin, V.V. Panichkina et al., Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 58, No. 10, 76 (1994).

V.F. Shnyukov and A.E. Lushkin, Radiotekhn. 100, 267 (1997).

O.I. Get'man, A.E. Lushkin, S.P. Rakitin, and V.V. Panichkina, Poroshk. Metallurg. N 11/12, 97 (2005).

A.E. Lushkin, Ph.D. thesis, Kyiv University, Kyiv, 1996 (in Russian).

V.F. Shnyukov, Dr. Sci. thesis, Kyiv University, Kyiv, 1994 (in Russian).

S.I. Plankovskii, E.K. Ostrovskii, and E.V. Tsegelnik, Aviats. Kosmich. Tekhn. Tekhnol. 2, 78 (2008).

V.F. Shnyukov, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin, S.P. Rakitin et al., Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 58, No. 10, 171 (1994).

G. Gartner, P. Geittner, H. Lydtin, and A. Ritz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 111, 11 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(96)00698-8

S. Sasaki, I. Amano, T. Yaguchi, N. Matsuzaki, E. Yamada, S. Taguchi, and M. Shibata, Appl. Surf. Sci. 111, 18 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(96)00701-5

S. Sasaki, T. Yaguchi, N. Mori, S. Taguchi, and M. Shibata, Appl. Surf. Sci. 146, 17 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(99)00040-9

E. Uda, O. Nakamura, S. Matsumoto, and T. Higuchi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 146, 31 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(99)00067-7

S. Sasaki, T. Yaguchi, Y. Nonaka, S. Taguchi, and M. Shibata, Appl. Surf. Sci. 195, 214 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(02)00557-3

P. Geittner, G. Gartner, and D. Raasch, J. Vac. Sci. Tecnol. 18, 997 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1116/1.591315

G. Gaertner, P. Geittner, and D. Raasch, Appl. Surf. Sci. 201, 61 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(02)00501-9

I.I. Bekh, V.V. Il'chenko, O.M. Kostyukevych, and A.E. Lushkin, Visn. Kyiv. Univ. Ser. Fiz. Mat. Nauky 2, 236 (2003).

J. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Tao, H. Li, J. Yang, and M. Zhou, Appl. Surf. Sci. 215, 38 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(03)00322-2

J. Li, S. Yan, W. Shao, Q. Chen, and M Zhu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 215, 49 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(03)00273-3

V.F. Shnyukov, A.D. Gorchinskii, and A.E. Lushkin, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 582, N 10, 166 (1994).

V.F. Shnyukov, A.D. Gorchinskii, B.I. Mikhailovskii, A.E. Lushkin, and V.N. Telega, in Physicochemical, Structural, and Emission Properties of Thin Films and Solid Surface, edited by M.G. Nakhodkin (Zaporizhzhya, 1995), Vol. 2, p. 158 (in Ukrainian).

W. Muller, Appl. Surf. Sci. 111, 30 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(96)00699-X

P.M. Zagwijn, J.W.M. Frenken, U. Van Stoolen, and B.A. Duine, Appl. Surf. Sci. 111, 35 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(96)00750-7

S.H. Magnus, D.N. Hill, and W.L. Ohlinger, Appl. Surf. Sci. 111, 42 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(96)00700-3

Shih, J.E. Yater, and R. Abrams, Appl. Surf. Sci. 146, 1 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(99)00062-8

I.I. Bekh, O.Ye. Lushkin, and Yu.A. Len', Visn. Kyiv. Univ. Ser. Radiofiz. Electron. 3, 16 (2001).

Shih, J.E. Yater, C. Hor, and R. Abrams, Appl. Surf. Sci. 7931, 1 (2002).

S. Iida, T. Tsujita, T. Nagatomi, and Y. Takai, Surf. Interface Anal. 35, 7 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.1483

T. Nagatomi, S. Iida, T. Tsujita, and Y. Takai, Surf. Sci. Lett. 523, 37 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-6028(02)02407-X

S. Iida, T. Tsujita, T. Nagatomi, and Y. Takai, Surf. Sci. 543, 1 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2003.08.019

T. Tsujita, S. Iida, T. Nagatomi, and Y. Takai, Surf. Sci. 547, 99 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2003.10.008

S-i. Iida, Y. Nakanishi, T. Nagatomi, and Y. Takai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43A, 6352 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.43.6352

A. Shih, J.E. Yater, and C. Hor, Appl. Surf. Sci. 242, 35 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.07.067

I.I. Bekh, Ph. D. thesis, Kyiv, 2007 (in Ukrainian).

W. Shuguang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 251, 114 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.03.217

H. Yuan, X. Gu, K. Pan, Y. Wang, W. Liu, K. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Zhou, and J. Li, Appl. Surf. Sci. 251, 106 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.03.196

W. Jinshu, L. Hong, L. Lili, and Zh. Meiling, J. Rare Earths 25, 194 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0721(07)60072-6

J. Wang, L. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wang, and Y. Wang, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69, 2103 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2008.03.013

J. Wang, L. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wang, L. Zhao, and Y. Wang, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68, 2209 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2007.05.014

J. Wang , Y. Wang, W. Liu, L. Li, Y. Wang, and M. Zhou, J. Alloys Comp. 459, 302 (2008).

J. Wang, X. Wang, W. Liu, T. Gao, and Y. Wang, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 72, 1128 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2011.06.015

B.Ch. Dyubua, A.G. Mihal'chenkov, O.V. Polivnikova, and M.P. Temiryazeva, Elektron. Tekhn. Ser. 1 Elektron. SVCh, Iss. 1, 25 (2010).

Y. Wang, J. Wang, W. Lin, K. Zhang, and J. Li, IEEE Trans. Electr. Dev. 54, 1061 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1109/TED.2007.894602

J. Wang, Ch. Lai, W. Liu, F. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Cui, and M. Zhou, Mater. Res. Bull. 48, 3594 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2013.05.069

X. Zhang, J. Wang, W. Liu, T. Tian, and M. Zhou, Mater. Res. Bull. 48, 5040 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2013.05.018

Published
2019-01-22
How to Cite
Lushkin, O. (2019). On Efficient Thermionic Cathodes. Ukrainian Journal of Physics, 60(1), 74. https://doi.org/10.15407/ujpe60.01.0074
Section
Solid matter