Mechanism of Tin-Induced Crystallization in Amorphous Silicon
Keywords:silicon, nanocrystals, thin films, metal-induced crystallization, tin, solar cell
Formation of Si nanocrystals in amorphous Si-metallic Sn film structures has been studied experimentally, by using the Auger spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and Raman scattering methods. The results are analyzed in comparison with recent results on the crystallization of tin-doped amorphous Si. A mechanism of silicon transformation from the amorphous to the nanocrystalline state in the eutectic layer at the Si–Sn interface is proposed. The mechanism essence consists in a cyclic repetition of the processes of formation and decay of the Si–Sn solution. The application aspect of this mechanism for the fabrication of nanosilicon films used in solar cells is discussed.
M.A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19, 84 (2011).
D.L. Staebler and C.R. Wronski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977).
M. Jeon, C. Jeong, and K. Kamisako, Mater. Sci. Technol. 26, 875 (2010).
O. Nast and A.J. Hartmann, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 716 (2000).
A. Chandra and B.M. Clemens, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6776 (2004).
F. Lin and M.K. Hatalis, MRS Proc. 279, 553 (1992).
V.B. Neimash, A. Kraitchinskii, M. Kras'ko, O. Puzenko, C. Claeys, E. Simoen, B. Svensson, and A. Kuznetsov, J. Electrochem. Soc. 147, 2727 (2000).
V.B. Neimash, A. Kraitchinskii, M. Kras'ko et al., Ukr. J. Phys. 45, 342 (2000).
C. Claeys, E. Simoen, V. Neimash, A. Kraitchinskii, M. Kras'ko, O. Puzenko, A. Blondeel, and P. Clauws, J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, G738 (2001).
E. Simoen, C. Claeys, V.B. Neimash, A. Kraitchinskii, N. Krasko, O. Puzenko, A. Blondeel, and P. Clauws, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2838 (2000).
E. Simoen, C. Claeys, A.M. Kraitchinskii, M.M. Kras'ko, V.B. Neimash, and L.I. Shpinar, Solid State Phenom. 82, 425 (2002).
M.L. David, E. Simoen, C. Claeys, V. Neimash, M. Kras'- ko, A. Kraitchinskii, V. Voytovych, A. Kabaldin, and J.F. Barbot, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, S2255 (2005).
D. Girginoudi, N. Georgoulas, and F.J. Thanailakis, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 354 (1989).
A. Mohamedi, M.L. Thye, M. Vergnat, G. Marchal, and M. Piecuch, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3711 (1989).
G.N. Parsons, J.W. Cook, G. Lucovsky, S.Y. Lin, and M.J. Mantini, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 470 (1986).
R. Ragan, K.S. Min, and H.A. Atwater, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87, 204 (2001).
K.A. Johnson and N.W. Ashcroft, Phys. Rev. B 54, 14480 (1996).
M. Vergnat, M. Piecuch, G. Marchal, and M. Gerl, Phil. Mag. B 51, 327 (1985).
S.Yu. Shiryaev, J.L. Hansen, P. Kringhyj, and A.N. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2287 (1995).
R.W. Olesinski and G.J. Abbaschian, Bull. Alloy Phase Diag. 5, 273 (1984).
A. Mohiddon and G. Krishna, Crystallization – Science and Technology, edited by M.R.B. Andreeta (InTech, 2012), p. 461.
A. Mohiddon and G. Krishna, J. Mater. Sci. 47, 6972 (2012).
V.V. Voitovych, V.B. Neimash, N.N. Krasko, A.G. Kolosiuk, V.Yu. Povarchuk, R.M. Rudenko, V.A. Makara, R.V. Petrunya, V.O. Yukhimchuk, and V.V. Strelchuk, Semiconductors 45, 1281 (2011).
V.B. Neimash, V.M. Poroshin, O.M. Kabaldin, P.E. Shepelyaviy, V.O. Yukhymchuk, V.A. Makara, and S.U. Larkin, Ukr. J. Phys. 58, 865 (2013).
V. Neimash, V. Poroshin, P. Shepeliavyi, V. Yukhymchuk, V. Melnyk, A. Kuzmich, V. Makara, and A. Goushcha, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 213104 (2013).
H. Richter, Z.P. Wang, and L. Ley, Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981).
H. Cambell and P.M. Fauchet, Solid State Commun. 58, 739 (1986).
A. Hiraki, Surf. Sci. Rep. 3, 357 (1984).
M. Hillert, Acta Metallur. 9, 525 (1961).
A.G. Milnes, Deep Impurities in Semiconductors (Wiley, New York, 1973).
G.F. Wakefield and H.S. Nagaraja Setty, Patent US 3933981 A (20.01.1976).
I.E. Maronchuk, T.F. Kulyutkina, and I.I. Maronchuk, Patent UA 84653 (16.02.2010).
How to Cite
License to Publish the Paper
The corresponding author and the co-authors (hereon referred to as the Author(s)) of the paper being submitted to the Ukrainian Journal of Physics (hereon referred to as the Paper) from one side and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, represented by its Director (hereon referred to as the Publisher) from the other side have come to the following Agreement:
1. Subject of the Agreement.
The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the free non-exclusive right to use the Paper (of scientific, technical, or any other content) according to the terms and conditions defined by this Agreement.
2. The ways of using the Paper.
2.1. The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the right to use the Paper as follows.
2.1.1. To publish the Paper in the Ukrainian Journal of Physics (hereon referred to as the Journal) in original language and translated into English (the copy of the Paper approved by the Author(s) and the Publisher and accepted for publication is a constitutive part of this License Agreement).
2.1.2. To edit, adapt, and correct the Paper by approval of the Author(s).
2.1.3. To translate the Paper in the case when the Paper is written in a language different from that adopted in the Journal.
2.2. If the Author(s) has(ve) an intent to use the Paper in any other way, e.g., to publish the translated version of the Paper (except for the case defined by Section 2.1.3 of this Agreement), to post the full Paper or any its part on the web, to publish the Paper in any other editions, to include the Paper or any its part in other collections, anthologies, encyclopaedias, etc., the Author(s) should get a written permission from the Publisher.
3. License territory.
The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the right to use the Paper as regulated by sections 2.1.1–2.1.3 of this Agreement on the territory of Ukraine and to distribute the Paper as indispensable part of the Journal on the territory of Ukraine and other countries by means of subscription, sales, and free transfer to a third party.
4.1. This Agreement is valid starting from the date of signature and acts for the entire period of the existence of the Journal.
5.1. The Author(s) warrant(s) the Publisher that:
– he/she is the true author (co-author) of the Paper;
– copyright on the Paper was not transferred to any other party;
– the Paper has never been published before and will not be published in any other media before it is published by the Publisher (see also section 2.2);
– the Author(s) do(es) not violate any intellectual property right of other parties. If the Paper includes some materials of other parties, except for citations whose length is regulated by the scientific, informational, or critical character of the Paper, the use of such materials is in compliance with the regulations of the international law and the law of Ukraine.
6. Requisites and signatures of the Parties.
Publisher: Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Address: Ukraine, Kyiv, Metrolohichna Str. 14-b.
Author: Electronic signature on behalf and with endorsement of all co-authors.