Ultraviolet Sensors Based on ZnxCd1 – xS Solid Solutions
Effective semiconductor ultraviolet sensors on the basis of Zn0.6Cd0.4S and Zn0.7Cd0.3 solid solutions (SSs) are fabricated. The sensors include variband layers and a thin (∼10 nm) stable polycrystalline p-Cu1.8S film as a transparent component of the surface-barrier structure. The n-CdS layers are used as substrates for the epitaxial growing of SSs. The problems of obtaining low-resistive ZnxCd1−xS polycrystalline layers, providing an ohmic contact with them, and matching the lattice parameters in the SS and the substrate material are resolved by applying intermediate variband layers. On the basis of a heterostructure with glass filters, a selective sensor in the UV-A spectral interval is developed, as well as sensors sensitive to the pigmentation interval of solar radiation (the violet-blue section). Energy band diagrams of the multilayer structure are plotted. The results of Auger-spectroscopic researches and the researches of the main electrical and photovoltaic properties of sensors are reported.
J.C. Carrano, T. Li, C.J. Eiting, R.D. Dupuis, J.C. Campbell. Very high-speed ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on GaN. J. Electron. Mater. 28, 325 (1999).
E. Monroy, T. Palacios, O. Hainaut, F. Omn´es, F. Calle, J.-F. Hochedez. Assessment of GaN metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes for high-energy ultraviolet photodetection. Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3198 (2002).
R.V.L.N. Sridhar, M.V.H. Rao, K. Kalyani, K.V.S. Bhaskar, A. Chandran, M. Mahajan, A. Bhaskar Manja, G.M. Gouda, J.D.P.V. Tayaramma, P.R. Amudha, M.M. Kandpal, K.B. Pramod, S.G. Viswanath, L.V. Prasad, A.S. Laxmiprasad, P. Chakraborty, J.A. Kamalakar, G. Nagendra Rao, M. Viswanathan. Lyman alpha photometer: a far-ultraviolet sensor for the study of hydrogen isotope ratio in the Martian exosphere. Curr. Sci. 109, 1114 (2015).
R. Pidcock, M. Srokosz, J. Allen, M. Hartman, S. Painter, M. Mowlem, D. Hydes, A. Martin. A novel integration of an ultraviolet nitrate sensor on board a towed vehicle for mapping open-ocean submesoscale nitrate variability. J. Atmosph. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1410 (2010).
Jae Hee Jung, Jung Eun Lee, Gwi-Nam Bae. Real-time fluorescence measurement of airborne bacterial particles using an aerosol fluorescence sensor with dual ultraviolet- and visible-fluorescence channels. Environm. Eng. Sci. 29, 987 (2012).
Chen Bin, Yang Yin-tang, Xie Xuan-rong, Wang Ning. Primary modeling and survey of 4H-SiC based metal–semiconductor-metal ultraviolet sensor with novel electrode structure. Appl. Mech. Mater. 128–129, 411 (2012).
J. Theyirakumar, G. Gopir, B. Yatim, H. Sanusi, P.S.M. Mahmud, T.C. Hoe. Testing and calibration of an ultraviolet: A radiation sensor based on GaN photodiode. Sains Malays. 40, 21 (2011).
Y.R. Sipauba Carvalho da Silva, Y. Koda, S. Nasuno, R. Kuroda, S. Sugawa. An ultraviolet radiation sensor using differential spectral response of silicon photodiodes. In IEEE Sensors, Busan, South Korea, January 2015 (2015), p. 1.
Wang Wen-Bo, Gu Hang, He Xing-Li, Xuan Wei-Peng, Chen Jin-Kai, Wang Xiao-Zhi, Luo Ji-Kui. Transparent ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave based high performance ultraviolet light sensors. Chin. Phys. B 24, 057701 (2015).
Jian-Wei Hoon, Kah-Yoong Chan, Zi-Neng Ng, Teck-Yong Tou. Transparent ultraviolet sensors based on magnetron sputtered ZnO thin films. Adv. Mater. Res. 686, 79 (2013).
11. Ki Jung Lee, Haekwan Oh, Minuk Jo, Keekeun Lee, Sang Sik Yang. An ultraviolet sensor using spin-coated ZnO nanoparticles based on surface acoustic waves. Microelectron. Eng. 111, 105 (2013).
M.H. Mamat, N.N. Hafizah, M. Rusop, Fabrication of thin, dense and small-diameter zinc oxide nanorod array-based ultraviolet photoconductive sensors with high sensitivity by catalyst-free radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Mater. Lett. 93, 215 (2013).
K.S. Ranjith, R.T. Rajendra Kumar, Facile construction of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod/PEDOT:PSS hybrid heterojunction-based ultraviolet light sensors: Efficient performance and mechanism. Nanotechnology 27, 095304 (2016).
M.H. Mamat, N.D.M. Sin, I. Saurdi, N.N. Hafizah, M.F. Malek, M.N. Asiah, Z. Khusaimi, Z. Habibah, N. Nafarizal, M. Rusop. Performance of ultraviolet photoconductive sensor based on aluminium-doped zinc oxide nanorod-nanoflake network thin film using aluminium contacts. Adv. Mater. Res. 832, 298 (2014).
M.H. Mamat, M.F. Malek, N.N. Hafizah, Z. Khusaimi, M.Z. Musa, M. Rusop, Fabrication of an ultraviolet photoconductive sensor using novel nanostructured, nanohole-enhanced, aligned aluminium-doped zinc oxide nanorod arrays at low immersion times, Sensor. Actuat. B 195, 609 (2014).
Yung-Yu Chen, Cheng-Hsiu Ho, Tsung-Tsong Wu. Surface acoustic wave ultraviolet sensors based on ZnO nanorods. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST), Auckland, New Zealand (2015), p. 406.
Yi Liu, Liang Xi Pang, Jing Liang, Man Kit Cheng, Jia Jun Liang, Jun Shu Chen, Ying Hoi Lai, Iam Keong Sou. A compact solid-state uv flame sensing system based on wide-gap II-VI thin film materials. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 65 No. 3, 2737 (2018).
Xiaosheng Fang, Y. Bando, Meiyong Liao, Tianyou Zhai, U.K. Gautam, Liang Li, Y. Koide, D. Golberg. An efficient way to assemble ZnS nanobelts as ultraviolet-light sensors with enhanced photocurrent and stability. Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 500 (2010).
Yu.N. Bobrenko, A.M. Pavelets, S.Yu. Pavelets, V.M. Tkachenko. Short-wave photosensitivity of surface-barrier structures based on degenerate semiconductor–semiconductor junctions. Pis’ma Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 20, No. 12, 9 (1994) (in Russian).
Yu.N. Bobrenko, S.Yu. Pavelets, A.M. Pavelets, M.P. Kiselyuk, N.V. Yaroshenko. Efficient photoelectric converters of ultraviolet radiation based on ZnS and CdS with low-resistivity surface layers. Semiconductors 44, 1080 (2010).
S.Yu. Pavelets,Yu.N. Bobrenko,T.V. Semikina, K.B. Krulikovska, G.I. Sheremetova, B.S. Atdaev, M.V. Yaroshenko. Effective policrystaline sensor of ultraviolet radiation. Semicond. Phys. Quant. Electron. Optoelectron. 20, 335 (2017).
Yu.N. Bobrenko, S.Yu. Pavelets, A.M. Pavelets. Effective photoelectric converters of ultraviolet radiation with graded-gap ZnS-based layers. Semiconductors 43, 801 (2009).
Yu.N. Bobrenko, S.Yu. Pavelets, A.M. Pavelets, T.V. Semikina, N.V. Yaroshenko. Surface-barrier photoconverters with graded-gap layers in the space-charge region. Semiconductors 49, 519 (2015).
I.V. Sedova, T.V. L’vova, V.P. Ulin, S.V. Sorokin, A.V. Ankudinov, V.L. Berkovits, S.V. Ivanov, P.S. Kop’ev. Sulfide passivating coatings on GaAs(100) surface under conditions of MBE growth of ⟨II − VI⟩/GaAs. Semiconductors 36, 54 (2002).
K. Ando, H. Ishikura,Y. Fukunaga, T. Kubota, H. Maeta, T. Abe, H. Kasada. Highly efficient blue-ultraviolet photodetectors basedon II-VI wide-bandgap compound semiconductors. Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 1065 (2002).
S.V. Averin, P.I. Kuznetsov, V.A. Zhitov, N.V. Alkeev, V.M. Kotov, L.Yu. Zakharov, N.B. Gladysheva. MPM photodiodes based on wide-gap heterostructures ZnCdS/GaP. Zh. Tekhn. Fiz. 82, No. 11, 49 (2012).
V.A. Gurtov. Solid State Electronics: A Tutotial (Tekhnosfera, 2008) (in Russian) [ISBN: 978-5-94836-187-1].
Physics of AII BVI compounds. Edited by A.N. Georgobiani, M.K. Sheikman (Nauka, 1986) (in Russian).
G.P. Peka, V.F. Kovalenko, A.N. Smolyar. Variband Semiconductors (Vyshcha Shkola, 1989) (in Russian).
A.G. Milnes, D.L. Feucht. Heterojunctions and Metal-Semiconductor Junctions (Academic Press, 1972).
Yu.N. Bobrenko, S.Yu. Pavelets, A.M. Pavelets, N.V. Yaroshenko. Photoelectric converters with graded-gap layers based on ZnSe. Semiconductors 47, 1372 (2013).
O.N. Tufle, E.L. Stelzer. Growth and properties of Hg1−xCdxTe epitaxial layers. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4559 (1969).
S. Adachi. Properties of Group-IV, III–V and II–VI Semiconductors (John Wiley and Sons, 2005).
D. Thomas, K.A. Vijayalakshmi, K.K. Sadasivuni, A. Thomas, D. Ponnamma, J.-J. Cabibihan. A fast responsive ultraviolet sensor from mSILAR-processed Sn-ZnO. J. Electron. Mater. 46, 6480 (2017).
Chin-Wei Lin, Kuang-Lu Huang, Kai-Wei Chang, Jan-Han Chen, Kuen-Lin Chen, Chiu-Hsien Wu. Ultraviolet photodetector and gas sensor based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O film. Thin Solid Films 618, 73 (2016).
T.V. Blank, Yu.A. Gol’dberg. Semiconductor photoelectric converters for the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Semiconductors 37, 999 (2003).
K. Hiramatsu, A. Motogaito. GaN-based Schottky barrier photodetectors from near ultraviolet to vacuum ultraviolet (360-50 nm). Phys. Status Solidi A 195, 496 (2003).
Li Yu-Ren,Wan Chung-Yun, Chang Chia-Tsung, Tsai Wan-Lin, Huang Yu-Chih, Wang Kuang-Yu, Yang Po-Yu, Cheng Huang-Chung. Thickness effect of NiO on the performance of ultraviolet sensors with p-NiO/n-ZnO nanowire heterojunction structure. Vacuum 118, 48 (2015).
S.Yu. Pavelets, G.A. Fedorus. Determination of the band break in Cu2S-CdS heterojunction. Fiz. Tekh. Polupro- vodn. 9, 1164 (1975) (in Russian).
R.V. Kantariya, S.Yu. Pavelets. Energy band diagram of p-Cu2−xS-n-CdS heterojunctions. Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 12,1214 (1978) (in Russian).
S.Yu. Pavelets, T.M. Svanidze, V.P. Tarasenko. Specific features of current flow through degenerate semiconductor–semiconductor heterojunctions. Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 18, 581 (1983) (in Russian).
S.Yu. Pavelets, T.V. Svanidze, V.P. Tarasenko. Reverse current in degenerate semiconductor–semiconductor heterojunctions. Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 17, 1330 (1983) (in Russian).