Conception of the Kelvin Method on the Basis of a Mechanic-Electrical Transformation
Keywords:nondestructive testing, Kelvin method, contact potential difference, surface charge measurements
The Kelvin method was based on the concept of the dynamic capacitor recharging by a contact potential difference. The present paper draws attention to the fact that the contact potential difference is not the same physical agent as the electrical potential difference due to the electromotive force. It cannot act as an active electrical voltage and, accordingly, cause the flow of an electric recharging current. The real reason for the appearance of a measured signal is the transformation of the electrode movement mechanical energy into the electric current energy. The current is generated due to periodic changes in the screening conditions of electrostatic charges above the investigated surface. Investigations are made of the method sensitivity to the amount of charges on the sample surface. It is shown that the measurement results are interpreted without invoking the ideas of the work function. Therefore, the method can be
successfully used in studies of organic and biological materials and electrolytes. The proposed mechanism is applicable in both the investigations of macroscopic distributions of the surface
charge and the atomic scale in the Kelvin probe force microscopy.
<li>J.C. Riviere. Handbook of Surface and Interface Analysis: Methods for Problem-Solving (M. Dekker, 1969).
<li>Yu.S. Zharkikh, S.V. Lysochenko, S.S. Novikov, O.V. Tretiak. The surface of silicon wafers control after chemical treatments. New technologies 1–2, Nos. 4–5, 18 (2004).
<li>B. L?agel, I.D. Baikie, U. Petermann. A novel detection system for defects and chemical contamination in semiconductors based upon the scanning Kelvin probe. Surf. Sci. 433, 622 (1999).
<li>G.N. Luo, K.Yamaguchi, T. Terai, M. Yamawaki. Influence of space charge on the performance of the Kelvin probe. Rev. Sci. Instr. 72, 2350 (2001).
<li>L. Kronik, Y. Shapira. Surface photovoltage phenomena: theory, experiment, and applications. Surf. Sci. Rep. 37, 1 (1999).
<li>W. Melitz, J. Shen, A.C. Kummel, S. Lee. Kelvin probe force microscopy and its application. Surf. Sci. Rep. 66, 1 (2011).
<li>U. Klein, W. Vollman, P.J. Abatti. Contact potential differences measurement: short history and experimental setup for classroom demonstration. IEEE Transactions on Education 46, 338 (2003).
<li>Yu.S. Zharkikh, S.V. Lysochenko. Mechanic-electrical transformations in the Kelvin method. Appl. Surf. Sci. 400, 71 (2017).
<li>W.A. Zisman. A new method of measuring contact potential differences in metals. Rev. Sci. Instr. 3 (7), 367 (1932).
<li> J. S.W. de Boer, H.J. Krusemeyer, N.C. Burhoven Jaspers. Analysis and improvement of the Kelvin method for measuring differences in work function. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1003 (1973).
<li> B. Ritty, F. Wachtel, R. Manquenouille, F. Ott, J.B. Donnet. Conditions necessary to get meaningful measurements from the Kelvin method. J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 15 310 (1982).
<li> Yu.S. Zharkikh, S.V. Lysochenko, O.V. Tretiak. Application of the dynamic capacitor method in semiconductor sensorics. Sensor Electr. Microsyst. Techn. 10, 36 (2013).
<li> D.K. Schroder. Contactless surface charge semiconductor characterization. Mat. Sci. Eng. B 91–92, 196 (2002).
<li> L.N. Abessonova, Yu.S. Zharkikh, A.D. Evdokimov, V.N. Schetkin. Thickness dependence of physical parameters of thermal oxide films on silicon. Microelectronics J. 20 (5), 461 (1991) (in Russian).
<li> Yu.S. Zharkikh, S.V. Tychkina. UV-stimulated changes in a charge state of the free surface of the Si–SiO2 system. Phys. Techn. Semicond. 24, 2062 (1990) (in Russian).
<li> Yu.S. Zharkikh, V.V. Piatnitsky, O.V. Tretiak. Effect of the weak form of adsorption on the Si surface charge. Appl. Surf. Sci. 6, 48 (1998).
<li> K. Jakobi. Electronic and Vibrational Properties (Springer, 1994).
<li> G.W. Gobely, F.G. Allen. Photoelectric properties and work function of cleaved germanium surfaces. Surf. Sci. 2, 402 (1964).
<li> F.G. Allen, G.W. Gobely. Comparison of the photoelectric properties of cleaved, heated, and sputtered silicon surfaces. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 597 (1964).
<li> L. Nony. Principles of Kelvin probe force microscopy and applications. In: Proceedings of the 1st German-French Summer School on noncontact AFM, Porquerolles, France, (2013), p. 1.
<li> H. Hoppe, T. Glatzel, M. Niggemann, A. Hinsch, M.Ch. Lux-Steiner, N.S. Sariciftci. Kelvin probe force microscopy study on conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Nano Lett. 5, 269 (2005).
<li> T. Hallam, C.M. Duffy, T. Minakata, M. Ando, H. Sirringhaus. A scanning Kelvin probe study of charge trapping in zone-cast pentacene thin film transistors. Nanotechnology 20, 2 (2008).
<li> L.M. Liu, G.Y. Li. Electrical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes in organic solar cells by Kelvin probe force microscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 33 (2010).
<li> N.G. Clack, K. Salaita, J.T. Groves. Electrostatic read-out of DNA microarrays with charged microspheres. Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 825 (2008).
<li> E. Finot, Y. Leonenko, B. Moores, L. Eng, M. Amrein, Z. Leonenko. Effect of cholesterol on electrostatics in lipidprotein films of a pulmonary surfactant. Langmuir 26, 1929 (2010).
<li> Y. Abbas, X.Zhu, H.L. de Boer, N.B. Tanvir, W. Olthuis, A. van den Berg. Potentiometric measurement with a Kelvin probe: Contactless measurement of chloride ions in aqueous electrolyte. Sens. Actuators, B: Chem. 236, 1126 (2016).
How to Cite
License to Publish the Paper
The corresponding author and the co-authors (hereon referred to as the Author(s)) of the paper being submitted to the Ukrainian Journal of Physics (hereon referred to as the Paper) from one side and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, represented by its Director (hereon referred to as the Publisher) from the other side have come to the following Agreement:
1. Subject of the Agreement.
The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the free non-exclusive right to use the Paper (of scientific, technical, or any other content) according to the terms and conditions defined by this Agreement.
2. The ways of using the Paper.
2.1. The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the right to use the Paper as follows.
2.1.1. To publish the Paper in the Ukrainian Journal of Physics (hereon referred to as the Journal) in original language and translated into English (the copy of the Paper approved by the Author(s) and the Publisher and accepted for publication is a constitutive part of this License Agreement).
2.1.2. To edit, adapt, and correct the Paper by approval of the Author(s).
2.1.3. To translate the Paper in the case when the Paper is written in a language different from that adopted in the Journal.
2.2. If the Author(s) has(ve) an intent to use the Paper in any other way, e.g., to publish the translated version of the Paper (except for the case defined by Section 2.1.3 of this Agreement), to post the full Paper or any its part on the web, to publish the Paper in any other editions, to include the Paper or any its part in other collections, anthologies, encyclopaedias, etc., the Author(s) should get a written permission from the Publisher.
3. License territory.
The Author(s) grant(s) the Publisher the right to use the Paper as regulated by sections 2.1.1–2.1.3 of this Agreement on the territory of Ukraine and to distribute the Paper as indispensable part of the Journal on the territory of Ukraine and other countries by means of subscription, sales, and free transfer to a third party.
4.1. This Agreement is valid starting from the date of signature and acts for the entire period of the existence of the Journal.
5.1. The Author(s) warrant(s) the Publisher that:
– he/she is the true author (co-author) of the Paper;
– copyright on the Paper was not transferred to any other party;
– the Paper has never been published before and will not be published in any other media before it is published by the Publisher (see also section 2.2);
– the Author(s) do(es) not violate any intellectual property right of other parties. If the Paper includes some materials of other parties, except for citations whose length is regulated by the scientific, informational, or critical character of the Paper, the use of such materials is in compliance with the regulations of the international law and the law of Ukraine.
6. Requisites and signatures of the Parties.
Publisher: Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Address: Ukraine, Kyiv, Metrolohichna Str. 14-b.
Author: Electronic signature on behalf and with endorsement of all co-authors.